From how many countries did Singapore import water?

Travel Destinations

By Felicity Long

Singapore’s Water Importation

Singapore is a small island city-state located in Southeast Asia. With a population of over 5.6 million and limited natural resources, the country faces a challenge in meeting its water demands. To overcome this challenge, Singapore has implemented a comprehensive water management strategy that includes both water conservation efforts and the importation of water from various sources around the world.

Neighboring Countries: Malaysia and Indonesia

Singapore’s closest neighbors, Malaysia and Indonesia, play a significant role in its water importation efforts. Singapore imports water from Malaysia through the Johor River and Desalination plants in Tuas, while also procuring rainwater from the Riau Islands in Indonesia.

Malaysia: Johor River and Desalination

Singapore’s primary source of water from Malaysia is the Johor River. The Johor River Waterworks, located in Johor Bahru, provides up to 250 million gallons of water per day to Singapore. Additionally, Singapore has built desalination plants in Tuas to supplement its water supply from the Johor River. These desalination plants have a capacity of 30 million gallons per day.

Indonesia: Riau Islands and Rainwater

Singapore also imports water from Indonesia by collecting rainwater from the Riau Islands. The rainwater is collected in a catchment area of more than 1,500 hectares and transported to Singapore via a pipeline. This water supply can provide up to 10% of Singapore’s total water demand.

China: Dongjiang River

Singapore also imports water from China’s Dongjiang River. The 400-kilometer long river, located in Guangdong Province, is one of the major sources of water for Hong Kong and Macau. Singapore has an agreement with China to import water from the Dongjiang River, supplying up to 250 million gallons of water per day.

Australia: Victoria and Rainwater

Singapore has recently diversified its water sources to include Australia. Singapore has signed an agreement with the state of Victoria to purchase up to 50 million liters of treated rainwater per year. This agreement allows Singapore to reduce its dependence on traditional water sources and mitigate the impacts of climate change.

Turkey: Mersin and Bulk Water

Singapore has also signed an agreement with Turkey to import water from the Mersin region. This water is sourced from underground aquifers and transported to Singapore via a tanker vessel. The agreement allows Singapore to access bulk water supplies during times of drought or water scarcity.

United States: California and Desalination

Singapore has an agreement with California to import water from the Carlsbad Desalination Plant. The plant, located in San Diego County, produces up to 50 million gallons of drinking water per day. This partnership with California allows Singapore to access a reliable source of water during times of drought.

Oman: Sur and Desalination

Singapore has also signed an agreement with Oman to import water from the Sur desalination plant. The plant, located on the Arabian Sea, produces up to 80 million gallons of drinking water per day. This partnership with Oman allows Singapore to increase its water supply during times of drought or water scarcity.

Israel: Soreq and Desalination

Singapore has signed an agreement with Israel to learn about its desalination technologies and import water from the Soreq desalination plant. The plant, located in the Negev Desert, produces up to 150 million gallons of drinking water per day. This partnership with Israel allows Singapore to access the latest desalination technologies and improve its water supply infrastructure.

Spain: Alicante and Desalination

Singapore has also signed an agreement with Spain to purchase water from the Alicante desalination plant. The plant, located on the Mediterranean coast, produces up to 60 million gallons of drinking water per day. This partnership with Spain allows Singapore to access a reliable source of water during times of drought or water scarcity.

UAE: Ras Al Khaimah and Desalination

Singapore has signed an agreement with the United Arab Emirates to import water from the Ras Al Khaimah desalination plant. The plant, located on the Persian Gulf, produces up to 100 million gallons of drinking water per day. This partnership with the UAE allows Singapore to access a reliable source of water during times of drought or water scarcity.

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Felicity Long

Felicity Long, a seasoned travel journalist with 15+ years of experience, specializes in exploring Europe, family travel, and skiing, as evident in her book "Great Escapes: New England" (The Countryman Press). She edits the Europe eNewsletter and contributes significantly to TravelAsker's destinations sections. Felicity has received esteemed awards, including the Cacique and Yo Leonardo Awards, in recognition of her outstanding international travel writing accomplishments.

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